There are many ways to look at the ADDIE design model. There are some graphics that look at the process as linear where you pass through each step of design one after the other.

ADDIE- Linear

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There are other models that squarely place the Evaluation phase dead center. Since evaluation is ingrained in the other phases, it seems like evaluation isn’t last but throughout.


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Still others place Design at the center of the process. Part of why this is seen as so important is because the design phase dictates how you will perform the development, implementation, and evaluation phases and it is also rooted in the results of the analysis phase. Since all the other phases either contribute to or are products of the design phase, it is easy to see why it is considered central to instructional design with ADDIE.

ADDIE- Design

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In his book, Chuck Hodell (2011) points to the design function as the center of the ADDIE process and illustrates it as such (p. 56). When examining the general functions of the design process, it includes things like lesson plans, objectives, evaluation tasks, and writing the design plan (Hodell, 2011, p. 57). The design process produces the design document which outlines learning approach, media choices, objectives, and course exercises, activities, and assessments (, 2004). When you review the steps in the ADDIE model, they include:

  • Analysis- Which is needed to begin design and create the design document
  • Design- Where the design document is created
  • Development- Wherein the steps to development and implementation have been outlined in the design phase
  • Implementation- Whose steps have been outlined in the design phase
  • Evaluation- The means to evaluate and assessment tools were also created in the design phase (, 2012)

It is easy to see how the Design phase and the creation of the design document becomes the centerpiece of using the ADDIE model for instructional design. Essentially, this is where the data from the analysis phase is molded to create the look, feel, and function of the instruction (Castagnolo, 2008).


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As I look at how to effectively and efficiently use the ADDIE model to create instructional design, I can see how the design phase and design document can be central to the process. It would be a nice way to outline all the steps and processes involved in the learning activity so that the scope of the project can be considered and the sequence of steps determined. Check out the site to see more on the Instructional Design Document. What a great way to think about the functional use of the ADDIE model and its role in good instructional design. I also I think that the graphics used above to demonstrate the different views of the ADDIE process are all a little flawed. I think the design step should be center with the other steps surrounding it but all the steps encased in evaluation since one is always examining and evaluating. Design is so important and essential to ADDIE, and evaluation is intertwined in every step… But I think design is central.

Castagnolo, C. (2008) The ADDIE model: Why use it? Retrieved from (2012). Instructional design models and methods, from (2004). Instructional design documents. Retrieved from

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